Swiss outer space activity is shaped by domestic measures and international cooperation with the European Space Agency. Most research and development takes place within the framework of the European Space Agency, of which Switzerland is a founding member. The Swiss Federal Council is responsible for Switzerland’s space policy, with the involvement of several departments such as the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport, and the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research. The Swiss Space Policy is the cornerstone of Switzerland's national space framework. Key contemporary Swiss positions on space security include its political commitment not to conduct destructive, direct-ascent anti-satellite (ASAT) missile testing in October 2022.