Russian FederationRussian Federation
Last Reviewed: September 2023

The Russian outer space program has an integrated civilian and military structure. In 2015 the Russian space program was restructured; the Russian Federal Space Agency was abolished and authority transferred to the State Corporation for Space Activities (Roscosmos). In the field of space activities, Roscosmos implements state policy, legal regulation, international activities, organizes the rocket and space industry, and works in cooperation with the Ministry of Defense. Also in 2015, the Russian Armed Forces underwent restructure combining the Air Force and Aerospace Defense Forces into the Aerospace Forces, which houses the Space Force branch of the Russian Armed Forces. The constitution of the Russian Federation places outer space activities explicitly under its jurisdiction. The pillar of Russian outer space governance is Law N 5663-1, Law of the Russian Federation on Space Activities, which undergoes modification via presidential amendments. The Executive Office of the President also issues decrees and provisions on space policy and activity. Key contemporary positions of the Russian Federation include its political commitment not to be the first to place weapons in outer space. In addition to its domestic structure, the Russian Federation in 2008 with the People’s Republic of China introduced to the Conference on Disarmament a draft Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space, the Threat or Use of Force against Outer Space Objects.