Dutch space policy is jointly determined by the government ministries (Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy, Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management, and Ministry of Foreign Affairs) that are members of the steering group of the Netherlands Space Organisation and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research. Dutch space activity is guided by its space policy which is adopted approximately every three years. In addition, recognizing the importance of outer space for national security, the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs introduced its space security policy at the beginning of 2021 and the Ministry of Defence released the Defence Space Agenda in 2022. Moreover, as a member State to the European Union, Netherlands adheres to the established space framework by the European Union including key positions including but not limited to the Space Strategy for Europe and the European Union Space Strategy for Security and Defence. Additional key positions on space security include the Netherland's political commitment not to conduct destructive direct-ascent antisatellite missile tests.